OK, I've been doing a bit of work and research on this over the past couple of weeks, and I thought I'd update you on my initial findings and thoughts;

I must give a shout out to the guys on the Miniwargaming Youtube channel who have come up with a mechanism for making AoS playable by introducing a points system, and the way I'm doing this here is based on their work, so kudos to you guys... The way they've done it is thus;

*Take the model's Wounds, add the number of Attacks and multiply the result by the Bravery. This appears to work reasonably well for infantry or cavalry models. For monsters and war machines, add a x2 multiplier at the end. For models with D6 attacks (the example they used was a Doomwheel), take the average on the high side, so for D6 that would be 4 so use 4 as the number of attacks.*Now by using this algorithm, and replacing the Bravery stat with Leadership a basic Witch Elf comes out at a rather expensive 16 points (1 wound plus 1 attack, multiplied by 8 Ld). However, if we were to do the calculation by simply adding all three together rather than multiplying W+A by the Ld, then the result would come out at 10 (W + A + Ld) which is the same as the official cost in the 7th Edition DE book, although they were 13 points in 6th edition.

Based on this, a Hag comes out at 11 points rather than the official 20, but that's OK as the Hag is a command upgrade anyway, so at this point, the numbers are working properly if we use the algorithm to generate a basic points cost and then do the upgrades as per the normal method (ie. +10 for the champion, +5 for the musician and +10 for the standard bearer)

OK, let's see how a few other DE units work out;

DE Warriors are coming out expensive at 10 points (their W, A and Ld are the same as the Witch Elves) whereas (in 7th edition) they are 6 points each, with a +6, +3, +6 command upgrade table. However, in 6th edition, they are 9 points each, with the usual 10-5-10 command group, which is a bit closer, although still a point too high.

OK, we could (at the risk of slightly overcomplicating it) add a modifier for the unit type, thus;

Since the Witch Elves (a Special Choice in 6th and 7th - not sure about 8th as I don't have the book) came out at the correct points cost based on W+A+Ld, we will say that there is no modifier for Special Choices, so this becomes the baseline.

Now if we apply a -1 modifier for Core Units, the DE Warrior points cost comes out at a correct (for 6th edition) 9 points.

**Modifiers:**Lords: x3

Heroes: x2

Core: -1

Special: +2

Rare: x2 (not really used in the examples below, though it would fix some units break break others)

Monsters: x2

War Machines: x2

Swarm: x2

Skirmishers: +1

Undead: +1

Scouts: +1

Flyer: +3

Cavalry: +2

**Testing The Concept**OK then, here's how the basic method applies to Dark Elves (6th Edition). Note that I haven't included Lord or Hero units in this as yet - they are complex with lots of special rules and I'm trying to establish a basline method here. Once I get this reasonably accurate, I'll be happy to look at these unit types too.

**Core Units:**

Dark Elf WarriorW+A+Ld=10 -1 (Core Modifier) = 9. This comes out correct for 6th Edition

**Corsair**W+A+Ld=10 -1 (Core Modifier) = 9. This is one point too low (Should be 10 points) which is strange because Corsairs and Warriors have exactly the same stats). Presumably the Sea Dragon Cloak adds that extra point. If we say the cloak is a shield (see below), then on a warrior this costs +1 so that comes out right at 10 points. So far, so good...

**Dark Riders**Rider - W+A+Ld=10

Mount - W+A+Ld=7

So add these together to get 17. -1 for being core, we get 16 where the official cost is 18. Maybe they get a +2 for being cavalry, which would again get the numbers correct.

**Special Units:**

ShadesW+A+Ld=10. Official cost is 14. +1 for being skirmishers still comes up 3 short. You could add another +1 for being scouts but it's still 2 points shy of its target. Perhaps, instead of dispensing with the zero-modifier for Special, we could add a +2, which would then bring the numbers into line with the book.

**Witch Elves**W+A+Ld=10. Should be 13. No modifier for Special. You could add +1 for poisoned attacks but would still be short. Adding a +2 for Special would put this correct though.

**Cold One Chariot**Crew are not given wound stats in 6h edition (neither are the two cold ones), so A+Ld=9

Chariot has 4 wounds

Cold Ones 1 attack but no Ld, so;

there are two crew so 9x2=18 plus 4 wounds (for the chariot) +1 (cold one attack) comes out at a measly 23 points whereas it should be 95 points, so it's tough to see what's going on here. Of course the chariot has a 4+ atmour save, so if we multiply our result by 4, we get 23x4=92 points which is in the ballpark, but adds an extra degree of complexity) If we take armour saves into account, then the +1 for a sea dragon cloak would only work on the corsair if we add it to the basic points value after the core modifier has been applied, rather than multiply it. Of course if we use armour saves as a multiplier, as in the case of the chariot here, then the corsair comes out at the accurate 10 points before the -1 core modifier is applied. Of course we could dispense with the -1 modifier, but then the basic Warrior costs the same as the corsair, since they have the same stats. Even if we consider the other stats such as WS and BS etc, whichever way you cut it, the DE Warrior and the Corsair have exactly the same statline - the only difference is the cloak. Of course if you consider the sea dragon cloak to be a shield (Corsairs cannot take shields in 6th, but warriors can, at +1 per model), then the numbers work out correctly, with the corsair costing one point more than the basic DE warrior

So given that our chariot worked out at 92 points and that we have a +2 for Special, then we're once again within one point of the official cost. So if we take the final points cost and multiply it by the armour save, then in this case at least, we are coming out very close to the actual cost (I would suggest that getting within 5-10% is an acceptable margin of error)

**Cold One Knights**Rider:W+A+Ld=10 (seriously all the DE elves have the same stats)

Mount:W+A+Ld=5, so adding these together we get 15. Now using a 2x multiplier for the armour save, it comes out at 30 points. Then add the +2 for special and we're just three points (10%-ish) over the official figure, then +2 for Cavalry, giving 34.

**Executioners**W+A+Ld=10

+2 for Special = 12. Actual figure is 11

**Harpies**W+A+Ld=8

+2 for Special = 10. Actual figure should be 13, so let's add a +3 for being a flying unit to get the points right.

**Rare Units:**Based on the work done by the guys at Miniwargaming, I'm going to apply a x2 modifier to monsters, war machines and Rare Choince infantry units, so let's see how this works out;

**War Hydra**Hydra - W+A+Ld=17

Apprentice - W+A+Ld=10

There are two apprentices, so we'll add their points together to get 20m, then add the 17 for the Hydra to come out at 37 points, instead of the required 220. OK, it's a monster, so we'll apply our x2 multiplier, and we still only get 74. We could modify this by adding a x3 multiplier for it being a rare unit, which would then give us a nice 222 points, which is almost spot-on, but then this will screw up the points calculation for other rare units such as the Black Guard. So let's stick to the armour saves method once again. If the War Hydra had a 3+ armour save then we could use that x3 multiplier. Of course with a 4+ this screws the pooch as it brings the cost up to 296 points. It's fairly difficult to work out exactly what's going on here - I think it's reasonable to be able to come up with a broad formula for calculating the points costs of core and special infantry or cavalry units.

**Black Guard**W+A+Ld = 11. x2 for being Rare Infantry = 22. Official cost in 6th edition is 16 points, so this comes out way overpriced. Maybe Black Guard don't belong in the Rare Choices anyway...

OK then, let's look at a couple of other armies and see how the algorithm holds up;

**Case Study #1 - Skaven**

Core:**Clanrats: ** Official cost in 6th edition = 5 points. Using my formula = 7 points, with -1 for being Core = 6. You could add a Horde Unit modifier to this in that units of 20+ models get a -1 for being a horde. That would bring the cost to the correct 5 points.

**Stormvermin: **Official = 8 points. Calculated = 7 points, with -1 for core = 6. You could add +1 for heavy armour bringing it back to 7, although heavy armour is usually +2 iirc, which would correct it again.

**Rat Swarm: **Official = 45 points per base. Calculated = 40 points (W+A+Ld=20 x2 for being a swarm) +1 for skirmishers = 41 points

**Giant Rats: **Official = 30 points/pack. Rats = W+A+Ld = 5. Packmaster = W+A+Ld = 7. Add these together to get 12. This doesn't work. Of course a pack consists of 6 rats at 5 points which gives the required 30 points, but then you end up with 37 if you add in the cost of the packmaster. It's a Mixed Unit so maybe you could add a couple of points penalty for that, or you could simply ignore the packmaster and get the right result. This one isn't working quite right, and don't forget the -1 for being Core. Then adding the packmaster would give 36.

**Night Runners: **Official = 5 points. Calculated = 7 (W+A+Ld=7, -1 for core, +1 for skirmishers)=7

**Clanrat Slaves: **Official = 2 points. Calculated = 3 points (W+A+Ld=4, -1 for being core). How about we add a -1 modifier for being expendable? - that would bring the cost into line with the book. Bear in mind that this would also apply to the Rat Swarms above, bringing their cost to 40 points instead of the canonical 45

**Poisoned Wind Globadiers: **Official = 10 points. Calculated = 7 (W+A+Ld=7, -1 for core, +1 for skirmishers). We could give a +1 for poisoned attacks, bringing it up to 8. Or maybe a +3 instead to get it back to 10, but this would make the Witch Elves 2 points overpriced, so for now, we'll settle for these guys being a tad cheap)

**Special Units:**

Gutter Runners: Official = 12 points. Calculated = 13 (W+A+Ld=9, +1 for skirmishers, +1 for scouts, +2 for special = 13)

**Jezzails:** Official = 20 points. Calculated = 20 (W+A+Ld = 8, +1 for skirmishers = 9. There are two skaven per base so we double the result, giving 18, then add the +2 modifier for being Special. Note that we're only adding the +2 once as the unit is on a single base

**Plague Monks: **Official = 6 points. Calculated = 9 (W+A+Ld=7, +2 for Special). So this one comes out as a quite a bit (50%) overpriced. Maybe I'm missing something here.

**Rat Ogres:** Official = 50 points. Calculated = W+A+Ld (Rat Ogre) = 11. W+A+Ld (Packmaster) = 7 =18. +2 for being special = 20. We could use the x2 Monster multiplier to bring it up to 40 points but it's still way short of what it needs to be.

**Rare Units: ****Plague Censer Bearers:** Official = 17 points. Calculated = 16 points. W+A+Ld = 7, +1 for skirmishers = 8. x2 for being Rare Infantry = 16. I'm not going to look at the Warp Lightning Cannon at the moment as it has a complex attack method which is currently outside the scope of this article.

**Findings from the Skaven Test Case***OK, in conclusion, the system has worked reasonably well for the Skaven, especially in terms of basic infantry-style units. It starts to break down with mixed and otherwise more complex unit types, but on the whole, in most cases, I've been able to get pretty close to the actual points cost using this calculation. Of course it doesn't really take account of varying WS and BS between units, but this would of course, make it much more complicated, although that is something that I would like to look into at some point.*

OK, on to our other test case army, this time, Tomb Kings. Once again, I'm going to leave out the Lords and Heroes and just concentrate on the rest, to keep things reasonably simple;

**Case Study #2 - Tomb Kings**Note: I'm going to give a +1 for being Undead and for "it came from below"

**Core Units:**

Skeleton Warriors: Official = 8 points

Calculated = 5 (W+A+Ld = 5, +1 for being Undead, -1 for being core)

**Skeleton Light Horsemen: ** Official = 14 points. Calculated = 16 points (Rider W+A+Ld = 7, Mount W+A+Ld = 7 = 14, +1 (undead) -1 (core), +2 (cavalry) =16

**Tomb Swarm: ** Official = 45 points. Calculated = 43 points (W+A+Ld = 20, x2 for being a swarm, +1 for poisoned attacks, +1 for skirmishers, +1 for undead, +1 for It Came From Below), -1 for Core = 43)

**Skeleton Heavy Horsemen:** Official = 16 points. Calculated = 16 points. Mount: W+A+Ld = 7, Rider W+A+Ld = 7 = 14, +1 for undead, -1 for core, +2 (cav). Note that this makes the heavy cav the same price as the light cav, so something needs tweaking. The only difference in the units is that the light cav have bows and no shields or armour, while the heavy cav have light armour and shields. If we add +1 for each of these then the points cost for heavy cav would be two points more than the light cav, as it should be, but still both units two points too high.

**Chariot:** Official = 40 points. Calculated = 30 points (W+A+Ld = 6 +1 (undead) = 7, -1 (core) = 6 x5 (AS) = 30. Chariot has 3 wounds and 5+ AS. Crew have one attack each as does the steed. Nothing has and Ld.

**Special Units:**

Tomb Guard: Official = 12 points. Calculated = 13 (W+A+Ld = 10, +2 (special) +1 (undead). These guys have light armour and shields, so if we were to allow the extra two points for this as suggested above, these would now be three points overcosted.

**Ushabti: ** Official = 65 points. Calculated = 36 points W+A+Ld = 16, +1 for undead, +2 for Special, x2 for Monster (well, it's on a 40mm base) = 36. Once again, the system breaks down once you get away from basic infantry models. More investigation is needed here.

**Carrion:** Official = 24 points. Calculated = 28 points. (W+A+Ld = 8 +2 (special), +1 (undead), +3 (flyer), x2 (monster) = 28

**Tomb Scorpion:** Official = 85 points. Calculated = 20 (W+A+Ld = 16, +1 (undead), +1 (It came from below), +1, poisoned attacks, +1 (magic resistance), +2 (special), +1 (killing blow)

= 23 x2 (monster) = 46. Still only just over halfway to the proper cost, even with extra points added for magic resistance and killing blow). Maybe this is something to do with armour saves again... Perhaps the x2 Rare Modifier would fix this (although it would screw up stuff that relies on the AS for its points)

Rare Units:

Screaming Skull Catapult: Official = 90 points. Calculated = 42 points. Catapult has W3, skeletons have W1, A1, Ld3. so 3x skellies at 5 each = 15 +3 for the catapult wounds = 18. +1 per skellie for being undead = 21, x2 for being a war machine = 42. Even a x2 for Rare Choices would still come up 6 points short (and would seriously mess up so of the rare units in other armies)

**Conclusion**OK, in conclusion, the system is working for core and special units (infantry and probably cavalry too), but once you get into monsters, machines and other weird stuff, it starts to come apart a bit. Perhaps there's an alternative algorithm for wotking out those type of units, but on the whole, I think this method works well enough to generate ballpark points values for invented and/or customised units.

I'm going to do much more work on this, as I feel there

*is* something here, but it's going to need a bit of fine tuning...